Articles universitaires et d’opinion liés à la médecine de transplantation et aux prélèvements forcés d’organes en Chine.
A.M. Holm, S. Fedson, A. Courtwright, A. Olland, K. Bryce, M. Kanwar, S. Sweet, T. Egan, J. Lavee. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Statement on Transplant Ethics. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2022.05.012.
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Statement on Transplant Ethics.
Thoracic organ transplantation improves the length and quality of life of patients with severe heart or lung disease using a vital organ donated from a human being. It is both a medical and societal endeavor that is bound by ethical principles. Among these principles are autonomy and respect for persons, utility which includes beneficence and non-maleficence, and justice, which includes fair allocation, health equity, and legal responsibilities. Together, these principles provide a general framework for navigating the complex ethical issues that arise in thoracic organ transplantation.
M.P. Robertson, R.L. Hinde, J. Lavee. Analysis of official deceased organ donation data casts doubt on the credibility of China’s organ transplant reform. BMC Medical Ethics, 2019. doi: 10.1186/s12910-019-0406-6.
N.W. Paul, A. Caplan, M.E. Shapiro, C. Els, K.C. Allison, H. Li. Human rights violations in organ procurement practice in China. BMC Medical Ethics, 2017. doi: 10.1186/s12910-017-0169-x.
W.A. Rogers, M.P. Robertson, J. Lavee. Engaging with China on organ transplantation. BMJ, 2017. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j665.
T. Trey, D. Matas. State-organized Criminal Forced Organ Harvesting. Journal of Trafficking and Human Exploitation, 2017 (lien PDF).
T. Trey, A. Sharif, A. Schwarz, M. Fiatarone Singh, J. Lavee. Transplant Medicine in China: Need for Transparency and International Scrutiny Remains. Am J Transplant, 2016. doi: 10.1111/ajt.14014.
A. Šućur, S. Gajović. Nobel Peace Prize nomination for Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) – a recognition of upholding ethical practices in medicine. Croat Med J, 2016. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2016.57.219.
F. Ambagtsheer, J. de Jong, W.M. Bramer, W. Weimar. On Patients Who Purchase Organ Transplants Abroad. Am J Transplant, 2016. doi: 10.1111/ajt.13766.
K.C. Allison, A. Caplan, M.E. Shapiro, C. Els, N.W. Paul, H. Li. Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China. BMC Med Ethics, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12910-015-0074-0
K.C Allison, N.W. Paul, M.E Shapiro, C. Els, H. Li. China’s semantic trick with prisoner organs. BMJ blog 2015 (lien ici).
R.M. Merion, A.D. Barnes, M. Lin, V.B. Ashby, V. McBride, E. Ortiz-Rios, J.C. Welch, G.N. Levine, F.K. Port, J. Burdick. Transplants in Foreign Countries Among Patients Removed from the US Transplant Waiting List. Am J Transplant. 2008. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02176.x
Transplant tourism, where patients travel to foreign countries specifically to receive a transplant, is poorly characterized. This study examined national data to determine the minimum scope of this practice. US national waiting list removal data were analyzed. Waiting list removals for transplant without a corresponding US transplant in the database were reviewed via a data validation query to transplant centers to identify foreign transplants. Additionally, waiting list removal records with text field entries indicating a transplant abroad were identified. We identified 373 foreign transplants (173 directly noted; 200 from data validation); most (89.3%) were kidney transplants. Between 2001 and 2006, the annual number of waiting list removals for transplant abroad increased. Male sex, Asian race, resident and nonresident alien status and college education were significantly and independently associated with foreign transplant. Recipients from 34 states, plus the District of Columbia, received foreign transplants in 35 countries, led by China, the Philippines and India. Transplants in foreign countries among waitlisted candidates in the US are increasingly performed. The data reported here represent the minimum number of cases and the full extent of this practice cannot be determined using existing data. Additional reporting requirements are needed.
J. Gill, B.R. Madhira, D. Gjertson, G. Lipshutz, J.M. Cecka, P.T. Pham, A. Wilkinson, S. Bunnapradist, G.M. Danovitch. Transplant Tourism in the United States: A Single-Center Experience. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02180508
Background and objectives: Transplant “tourism” typically refers to the practice of traveling outside the country of residence to obtain organ transplantation. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of 33 kidney transplant recipients who traveled abroad for transplant and returned to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for follow-up.
Design, settings, participants, & measurements: Posttransplantation outcomes were compared between tourists and a matched cohort of patients who underwent transplantation at UCLA (matched for age, race, transplant year, dialysis time, previous transplantation, and donor type). Median follow-up time was 487 d (range 68 to 3056).
Results: Compared with all patients who underwent transplantation at UCLA, tourists included more Asians and had shorter dialysis times. Most patients traveled to their region of ethnicity with the majority undergoing transplantation in China (44%), Iran (16%), and the Philippines (13%). Living unrelated transplants were most common. Tourists presented to UCLA a median of 35 d after transplantation. Four patients required urgent hospitalization, three of whom lost their grafts. Seventeen (52%) patients had infections, with nine requiring hospitalization. One patient lost her graft and subsequently died from complications related to donor-contracted hepatitis B. One-year graft survival was 89% for tourists and 98% for the matched UCLA cohort (P = 0.75). The rate of acute rejection at 1 yr was 30% in tourists and 12% in the matched cohort.
Conclusions: Tourists had a more complex posttransplantation course with a higher incidence of acute rejection and severe infectious complications.
M. Cheung, T. Trey, D. Matas, R. An. Cold Genocide: Falun Gong in China. Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal. An International Journal, 2018. doi: 10.5038/1911-99220.127.116.113
M.P. Robertson, J. Lavee. Execution by organ procurement: Breaching the dead donor rule in China. Am J Transplant, 2022. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16969